1977-1978: US DOE funded Hanna III and the Hoe Creek II field tests- Paul Ahner was a Technical Observer and contributor for both tests in preparation for a Proposal to the US DOE to conduct UCG in Steeply Dipping Coal Seams in Rawlins, Wyoming.
1978: US DOE funded Hanna IV- Paul Ahner was a participant in the planning and operation of this test and conducted helium tracer testing to characterize the flow paths formed during the reverse combustion linking phase.
1978-1982: Rawlins UCG Test 1 (1979) and Test 2 (1982), both co-funded by the US DOE- Paul Ahner was involved in a very wide range of activities, including:
- Project planning, setting test objectives and developing the test plan;
- Served as Assistant Technical Director and Test Director;
- Overseeing and supervising sub-contractors before and during site construction;
- Contributing to test permitting activities;
- Contributing to groundwater testing, groundwater impact analysis and data interpretation;
- Contributing to the choice of reactor definition instrumentation;
- Designing the process well pattern;
- Designing the Product Gas Analysis Trailer;
- Setting specs on the Data Acquisition Software;
- Overseeing the writing of the Operational Procedures Manual;
- Serving as shift supervisor;
- Interpreting the field test data;
- Designing the down hole process well hardware;
- Setting specifications on the surface and down hole plant design;
- Overseeing the writing of the quarterly, annual and final reports; and
- Writing the Hazard Analysis (HAZOP) for the field tests.
1982: UCG Lab Research- Paul Ahner was project leader for a lab-scale (10 lb coal charge) coal gasification research reactor which simulated UCG product production.
1983: Widco Partial Seam CRIP Field Test, Washington State- Paul Ahner assisted with the data interpretation from the trial, as a full time participant.
1983: UCG Drilling program- Supervised a small scale exploratory drilling program for steeply dipping coal seams near Frontier, Wyoming, USA. 1984: Evaluation of Spanish Coal UCG Resources- here, Paul Ahner was part of a team that conducted a preliminary evaluation of the coals a Val De Arino for ENDESA.
1985-1989: UCG Site Evaluation and Permitting (for Amoco) - Paul Ahner supervised hydrological testing and groundwater characterization and interpreted the data from a large area of coal-bearing land in Wyoming. This was done for a field test that Amoco had planned, but which was abandoned in 1989 due to very low energy prices.
1986-1988: Rocky Mountain 1 UCG trial, partially funded by Amoco - In this famous, highly successful UCG trial, Paul Ahner was involved in its planning, followed the test operation and participated in the post test analyses.
1994-1996: Carbon County UCG (CCUCG) test in steeply dipping seams- Paul Ahner served as a consultant in the latter stages of site construction, permitting, drilling and throughout the site operations. This test was operated on the same site as the very successful Rawlins 1 and 2 tests but was much deeper (1500 ft vs. 650 ft).
1998- 2006: Converting natural gas to liquid fuels- Paul Ahner ’s activities at Syntroleum included:
- Supervision of the operations of a contract pilot plant to develop a process for making premium fuels from raw Fischer Tropsch (FT) products;
- Served as lead engineer for the construction of a 1 bbl/day Fischer-Tropsch upgrading unit and managed its operation for 2 years; and
- Co-supervision of the upgrading side of a 60 bbl/day FT demonstration facility.
2008: UCG groundwater reclamation at the CCUCG site- For this early trial, poor operating conditions resulted in some groundwater contamination. This lead to Paul Ahner consulting in the ‘air sparging’ groundwater reclamation procedure, implemented at the CCUCG site in 2008. This procedure was successful in reclaiming the groundwater at the Hoe Creek II and III sites and it is presently restoring the groundwater at the CCUCG site. This trial also ensured lessons were learned for future site selection and UCG operating conditions, resulting in UCG’s modern status as a safe, relatively low-impact technology.
2008-2009: UCG at Chinchilla, Australia- Paul Ahner consulted for Linc Energy for about 18 months and recommended designs for the Chinchilla Generator 4 process module, down hole hardware, coal ignition hardware, injection rates and schedules, groundwater protection methods, product gas analysis and surface facilities. During this time Paul Ahner also consulted on the process module design and operation of the potential UCG project in Vietnam.
2009-Present: Consultant for Clean Coal Ltd and evaluation of GTL Processes- Paul Ahner is currently on an exclusive contract with Clean Coal Ltd to identify coal resources for UCG and to evaluate GTL processes regarding technical feasibility, stage of development and potential cost advantages. In addition to advising on all aspects of UCG, Paul Ahner has evaluated coal resources in Nova Scotia, Wyoming and North Dakota and has given UCG presentations at 3 international conferences and numerous times in Nova Scotia.
Tel: +44 770 200 6972
Shaun has more than four years experience in the UCG industry. Shaun Lavis has a wide ranging interest in UCG, a fact reflected by his varied role at Clean Coal and by his numerous presentations at leading international UCG conferences.
Shaun Lavis is a geoscientist by background, with professional experience in geochemistry, geology, hydrogeology, geophysics and site investigation, which he gained during working for Europe’s leading environmental consultancy as an Environmental Scientist and during working for a geophysics contractor.
Shaun Lavis role at Clean Coal includes site selection and evaluation (geological and hydrogeological), environmental risk assessment, regulatory assessment, project planning and budgeting and developing Clean Coal’s process-financial model. Shaun Lavis contributed to Clean Coal’s detailed site selection criteria and formal project evaluation methods and has applied these to numerous projects around the world, including: a large coal field in Xingjiang, NW China; coal fields in Nova Scotia, Canada; potential projects in Eastern Europe; a large coal field in Colombia and our UCG project in Turkey. Shaun Lavis was also involved in determining the regulatory environment for our Turkey project, helped manage the budgeting and strategy for the project, undertook a site visit and worked with local experts to obtain hydrogeological and environmental information about the site. Additionally, Shaun Lavis helped determine the requirements for formal UK UCG licence applications and was involved in the successful application for five UK UCG licences.
Professor Jan Palarski MSc, Ph.D, UCG Scientific AdviserJan Palarski is Professor of Mining Engineering at the Silesian University of Technology, Poland and is one of the world’s foremost scientific authorities on underground coal gasification. He has 40 years experience in mining, environmental protection and unconventional mining technologies.
Professor Palarski's research interests include underground mining methods, underground coal gasification, carbon dioxide sequestration, environmental impact assessment in mining regions, geotechnical practice for underground waste disposal and planning for mine closure and rehabilitation. He has published several books and is also the author or co-author of about 200 papers, articles and research reports. Professor Palarski has authored many papers on UCG, and has made presentations to most of the major coal and energy conferences in the world.
Jan Polarski has been providing more than 30 years consulting services for UCG, coal bed methane (CBM) and mine fill projects in Eastern and Central Europe and many countries around the world.
In the last three years, Jan Polarski was involved as contractor for the EC project to investigate hydrogen production from underground gasification (HUGE) and was a member of the Steering Group. He has also completed seven reports covering policy and regulation, coal reserves base, technological and geological issues and site investigation for UCG in Poland and Eastern and Central Europe.
Prof. Palarski was involved in the following UCG projects:
- Preliminary Evaluation of Underground Fire and Coal Gasification a t mine Klimontow/Poland
- Feasibility study and detailed planning for a underground lignite gasification in Lower Silesia - project in approval phase
- UCG project in Poltex Methane fields.
He has also been working with research centres, companies and state institutions to identify problems and propose solutions for the implementation of UCG technology.
1976–1981- Institut National des Industries Extractives (INIEX), Liège, Belgium.
Here, Henri Henquet was a Research Engineer developing an experimental pilot plant for gasification of coal and hydrocarbon materials. Henri Henquet contributed to the design and construction of laboratory systems for coal gasification experiments, gas analysis, downhole equipment and control devices and instrumentation for deep wells. During this time, Henri also conducted very high pressure tests at high temperature on tubing samples used in the nuclear industry and carried out piping certification (for Belgonuclear).
1981 – 1991 Institution pour le Développement de la Gazéification Souterraine (IDGS), Liège and Thulin, Belgium. Henri Henquet was Project Engineer for the Belgo-German UCG experiment at Thulin, Belgium, where he worked on surface and well equipment design, performed studies on in-well corrosion and developed the downhole ignition systems for 860m deep coal seam. Henri Henquet also supervised gasification operations, was the onsite engineer and expert for the cryogenic oxygen and nitrogen plants used during the test.
1988–1989-European Working Group on Underground Coal Gasification. During this time, Henri Henquet contributed to the basic design of the surface plant facilities and process completion for UCG.
1991–1998: Underground Gasification Europe (UGE), Alcorisa, Teruel Province, Spain. Henri Henquet was Project Engineer and a Technical Manager for the 2nd European UCG experiment at El Tremedal, Spain, where he worked on the engineering and design of wells (both drilling and equipment), performed studies on in-well corrosion, designed the downhole instrumentations, applied optical fibre reflectometry techniques and designed umbilical thermocouple cables on UCG wells. Henri also designed the downhole ignition systems and the completion of monitoring wells, was Site Engineer during gasification process and was responsible for the oxygen and nitrogen plants during gasification. Additionally, Henri was responsible for all activities related to the coiled tubing, CRIP manoeuvres and ignition of the coal as well as supervising the drilling operation and process well completion.
1998–1999: Institution pour le Développement de la Gazéification Souterraine (IDGS), Liège, Belgium. Henri Henquet worked on development of UCG techniques with the aim of improving UCG economics. Henri also worked on UCG project design for projects around the world and on thermal conversion processes for hydrocarbon-rich sewage sludge oxidation using deep wells.
From 2000: Institut Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP), Liège, Belgium- Henri Henquet was Project Engineer for the Best Environmental Technology & Energy department, working on:
• An International Research Program of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, “HUGE project”
(Hydrogen Oriented Underground Coal Gasification for Europe);
• Project engineer for the Revamping of the ISSeP’s facilities (ISSeP is one partner of the research for H2 production
based on UCG technology), design of new reactor for coal gasification tests at pressure (50 bars).
• Reporting on UCG safety issues, global impact on life standards and risk assessment;
• Test of hydrogasification of coal under high temperature (600°C) at pressure;
• R&D activities at the experimental semi-industrial pilot plants for conversion of coal and hydrocarbon materials (e.g. waste and plastic)
for energy production. Also worked on the environmental and safety aspects of the processes; and Project design of sustainable
innovative H2 production from carbonaceous solid fuels with low HG emissions by integrating fuel cell use and optional hi-tech carbon
and methanol outputs for H2 production.
Ian Wilson FRICS, Consultant Surveyor and Adviser on Licensing, Health Safety and Environment and Interaction with Government.Ian has over 40 years experience in the Coal Industry.
From 1994 he was employed by the Coal Authority, licensing coal-mining operations and managing surface hazard liabilities, tips and property.
In 2001 he became the Director of Mining Projects and Property, and since that time he has been an Executive Director and became a Member of the Board of the Authority a year later, being responsible for 80 staff and with an annual budget of over £30m.
Since 2001 he has been responsible for establishing the licensing policy for coal in the UK including the framework to enable UCG to progress.
His responsibilities included the health and safety aspects of staff, contractors and the safety of members of the public in respect of the historic legacy of coal-mining. On the environmental side of the Authority's work, providing a strategy for the treatment and management of polluted minewater through to 2027 in line with the Minewater Framework Directive and working with Defra secured funding for non-coal minewater treatment and the management of the Wheal Jane Tin Minewater Treatment Scheme.
Interaction with the public, government and the energy industry was a necessary part of his daily activities and the success of his department's achievements has been enhanced by his ability to develop sound working relationships based on trust, understanding and clarity of position.
1970 – 1983 Mining Surveyor, National Coal Board.
1983 – 1994 Subsidence Engineer and Assistant Chief Surveyor, British Coal Corporation.
1994 – 2001 Licensing Manager, The Coal Authority.
2001 – 2011 Executive Director and Board Member, The Coal Authority.
Registered Professional Natural Scientist, (Pr.Sci.Nat) with the South African Council for Natural Scientific Professions.
Member of the South African Geological Society.
Member of the South African Institute of Engineering Geologists.
Fellow of Geological Society of London (FGS)
Key Coal, CBM and UCG Projects
Coal exploration - Botswana.
Identifying, database compilation and project managing coal exploration on seven prospecting licences at Masesekwa (on-going to Pre-Feasibility Study), Dukwe East and Sowa. Drilling Supervision, core logging and reporting.
Database compilation and managing coal exploration on two prospecting licences at Tshimoyapula and Dinokwe. Drilling Supervision, core logging and reporting.
Identifying database compilation and managing coal exploration on Takotakwane prospecting licence. Drilling Supervision, core logging and reporting.
Identifying database compilation and managing coal exploration on Kodibeng prospecting licence. Drilling Supervision, core logging and reporting.
Identifying, database compilation and managing coal exploration on five prospecting licences Dukwe, Lechana and Mmamabula. Drilling Supervision, core logging and reporting.
Identifying, database compilation and managing prospecting licence. Technical advise wrt to Shale Gas application.
IGR on PL’s 603-4/2009 and 178/2010 Botswana
Multiple Reports on the coal, CBM and UCG potential of Botswana for various Clients.
IGR on various prospecting licences in Botswana for multiple Clients
Coal exploration project in the Lechana & Tshimoyapula Basins spanning 3 years. Drilling Supervision, core logging and reporting.
IGR on the coal, CBM and UCG potential of Block 17, Western Zambia.
IGR on the coal and CBM potential of areas of mutual interest Zambia.
Reports of various coal prospects in RSA for Transasia Minerals.
Report on the coal, CBM and UCG potential of Tanzania.
Management of exploration programme, field mapping and drilling supervision.
Reports of various coal prospects in Mozambique for Transasia Minerals.
Review of CBM work and activity in Botswana
CBM projects in Tanzania and Zambia. Research and target identification.
CBM project near Lephepe, Central District, Botswana. Drilling Supervision and testing.
CBM project for DGS at four locations, Botswana. Drilling Supervision and testing.
CBM project near Nata, Central District, Botswana. Technical Manager for drilling and testing programme.
CBM project in Mozambique. Review and comment on prospectivity of prospecting licences in Tete Province.
CBM project in Zambia. Competent Persons Report on licence holdings for LSE (AIM) prospectus.
CBM project in Zambia. Research and target identification for an existing licence holder. Field work and sampling for specialised testing to determine methane emissions potential in soil.
Botswana Oil and Gas Stratigraphic Drilling Project: Stratigraphic control and specialised sampling, including CBM testing on two deep wells in the central Kalahari.
CBM Project in Mopane Coalfield, Soutpansberg, Northern Province, R.S.A. Research into stratigraphy, structure and potential markets for the CBM.
CBM Project in Lebowa, R.S.A.. Stratigraphic control, core logging and sampling supervision.
IGR on the coal, CBM and UCG potential of Block 17, Western Zambia.
Multiple Reports on the coal, CBM and UCG potential of Botswana for various Clients.
2003-Present Managing Director- Principal Exploration & Engineering Geologist: Analytika Holdings, Gaborone, Botswana
Supervision of all exploration projects for various commodities, geotechnical site investigations within Botswana and internationally, reporting, Client liaison and business development.
2000-2003: Manager- Engineering Geologist: RTM Soils Testing Laboratory, Gaborone, Botswana
Supervision of all site investigations, reporting, Client liaison and business development
2000-2003: Geological Consultant:
CBM project near Nata, Central District, Botswana. Drilling Supervision and testing.
Geological background search, application preparation for prospecting licences for oil and gas in K.Z.N, RSA.
Mineral Rights search, application preparation for prospecting licences for PGM in the Bushveld Complex, NW Province RSA.
Resource Estimates for PGM deposits in the Bushveld Complex in RSA.
Mineral Rights search, application preparation for prospecting licences for alluvial diamond deposits in the Northern Cape, RSA.
1995 - 2000: Geological Consultant - Resource Exploration and Development, Johannesburg.
Resource Estimates for alluvial and hard rock tin deposits in the Far East.
CBM project in Mopane Coalfield, Soutpansberg, Northern Province, R.S.A. Research into stratigraphy, structure and potential markets for the CBM.
Co-ordinator of a team of 5 geologists re-computing the ore reserves of nine under ground gold mines in Zimbabwe.
Lephepe-Shoshong Road Centreline and Materials Investigation
Block modelling of gold deposits, underground and opencast in DCR (Zaire) in conjunction with Geostokos.
Reporting of Site Investigations undertaken by RTM Soil Testing Laboratory in Gaborone.
Coal Bed Methane project in Lebowa, R.S.A.. Stratigraphic control, core logging and sampling supervision.
Management Studies on the orebody management system at two under ground gold mines in Zimbabwe.
Due Diligence Study of Copper Oxide Caps in the Copperbelt in Zambia.
Due Diligence Study of Diamondiferous gravels in Tanzania.
Coal Bed Methane project in Lebowa, R.S.A.. Preliminary studies on coal reserves and geology.
Coal Bed Methane study at a proposed new mine development near Kriel, R.S.A.. Drilling Supervision and testing.
Commodity market and country study for investment opportunities in southern Africa.
Diamond exploration Tanzania. Research and field work.
Research for exploration opportunities in Uganda
Gold exploration Lupa Goldfield, southern Tanzania. Field work and reporting.
Botswana Oil and Gas Stratigraphic Drilling Project: Stratigraphic control and specialised sampling, including Coal Bed Methane Testing on two deep wells in the central Kalahari.
Marketing of the geological software Micromine and GPick including demonstrations to potential users, technical support and applications.
Geotechnical Projects various small projects.
1986 – 1995: Managing Director of Geological and Geodetic Services.
Major projects undertaken in Botswana during this period included:
Geochemical survey of gold prospect, soil/site investigations for pipelines and buildings
Geophysical log interpretation Serowe Wellfield
Geophysical logging Kanye Wellfield Phase II
Geochemical survey/trenching of Gold prospect
Exploration management of a cement grade limestone and calcrete prospects
Geophysical logging and interpretation at Phalla Road and Malotwane wellfields
Site investigation on 3 sub-station sites
Geophysical logging and interpretation Malotwane Wellfield
Drilling supervision D.W.A.
Material investigation Sekoma - Ghanzi - Mamuno Road
Geotechnical core logging bridge sites
Site investigation proposed B.D.F. Camp
Exploration for brick clays, silica, and limestone for various clients
Project management of District Waterpoint Survey
Managing Director GGS Pump Testing. Supervision and co-ordination of the operations of up to three testing pumping units operating under the Department of Water Affairs Consolidated Emergency Programme
Geophysical logging and interpretation of results for hydrofracturing project.
Deputy Project Manager Trans-Kalahari Road Groundwater Project.
Project Manager Tsetsebjwe limestone exploration project.
Botswana Technology Centre, Industrial Minerals Project, Techno-Economic Study, Reference Group.
Palapye Cement Project Management of exploration programme for limestone and calcrete reserves, identification and testing of reserves of Fly Ash, liaison with Project Engineers in all aspects of geology and survey requirements.
Mookane Calcrete Deposit
Preliminary exploration works to determine the extent to and quality of the deposit.
Project Management of a gold exploration project in the Kang-Kokong-Ootse area of Botswana. Works included mapping, drilling supervision and core logging, sampling for dating and liaison with geophysical contractors.
Contract Manager for the North South Carrier Ground Investigation Project. The scope of works included the drilling of ±450 large diameter auger holes, coring, test pitting and trenching and a wide range of sampling and testing. Compilation of a report on the works undertaken.
Kgale Hill Housing development. Soil survey for the Botswana Housing Corporation. Excavation of approximately 130 pits profiling and sampling for a soil distribution map.
1986: Field Manager for geophysical project in N.W. Sudan.Robertson Research International.
Co-ordination of activities from base camp of a regional gravity survey. The survey included gravimetric readings, sat-nav stations and geological mapping.
1982 - 1985: Senior coal geologist, Robertson Research International Ltd., Minerals Division. Appointed Branch Manager Gaborone Office.
Responsible for, on behalf of a major client, project management of a major coal exploration project in Botswana. The project encompassed review of available data, field work - including supervision of the drilling and logging of a substantial number of boreholes, aiding RRI (UK) staff in carrying out geochemical and heavy mineral surveys on a precious stones prospecting licence.
Other responsibilities during this period included business development in Southern Africa and work carried out from this office has included potential of gold dumps and mines in Francistown area, geophysical logging of coal and water wells, oil potential of Botswana.
1978 - 1982: Findus Ltd., sales representative/internal auditor/forms and stationery controller.
1975 - 1978: Senior geologist, Roan Consolidated Mines Limited, Mufulira, Zambia
Responsible for production and compilation of geological information involving laying out of drill holes and sampling. Calculation of stope grades and tonnages, preparation of reports and liaison with mine management.
1974: Exploration geologist, Amax International.
Office studies for the identification of exploration target areas.
1971 - 1974: Geologist, National Coal Board, Opencast Executive, Scottish Region
Development of coal reserves for opencast mining involving supervision of drilling crews, interpretation of drilling data and preparation of geological maps and reports.
Publications "Botswana Journal of Earth Sciences" Editor Volume 1 and Volume 2.
"The Geology of the Topisi Area" contribution to Bulletin No 38 of the Department of Geological Survey of Botswana
"Know your own Borehole" Editor for Groundwater Association of Botswana.
“The potential for the sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in South Africa” CSIR with Engelbrecht, A. Hietkamp, S and Scoles, B.
Presentations “The Lost Coalfields of Botswana”, Botswana 2007 the awakening of the coal giant, Fossil Fuel Foundation of Africa.
“Why UCG? Why Botswana”, Botswana 2010, Botswana Coal gaining momentum, Fossil Fuel Foundation of Africa.
“Underground coal potential of Southern Africa”, London, 2010. UCGA Workshop.